Docker

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Overview

Docker 사용법 정리

Basic

Docker 에는 크게 두가지 버전이 있다. CE(Community Edition) 과 EE(Enterprise Edition)이다. CE 는 개인/개발용 무료버전, EE 는 기업/상품용 유료 제품이다.

Installation

Dockerfile

docker 이미지를 생성하는 파일.

Commands

attach

현재 동작중인 container 에 접속한다.

$ sudo docker attach --help

Usage:	docker attach [OPTIONS] CONTAINER

Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container

Options:
      --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container
      --help                 Print usage
      --no-stdin             Do not attach STDIN
      --sig-proxy            Proxy all received signals to the process (default true)

Ctrl+P, Ctrl+Q 를 차례대로 입력하면 컨테이너를 정지하지 않고, 빠져나올 수 있다.

build

Dockerfile 을 이용해서 docker 이미지를 생성한다.

$ docker build --help

Usage:	docker build [OPTIONS] PATH | URL | -

Build an image from a Dockerfile

Options:
      --add-host list              Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)
      --build-arg list             Set build-time variables
      --cache-from stringSlice     Images to consider as cache sources
      --cgroup-parent string       Optional parent cgroup for the container
      --compress                   Compress the build context using gzip
      --cpu-period int             Limit the CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
      --cpu-quota int              Limit the CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
  -c, --cpu-shares int             CPU shares (relative weight)
      --cpuset-cpus string         CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
      --cpuset-mems string         MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
      --disable-content-trust      Skip image verification (default true)
  -f, --file string                Name of the Dockerfile (Default is 'PATH/Dockerfile')
      --force-rm                   Always remove intermediate containers
      --help                       Print usage
      --iidfile string             Write the image ID to the file
      --isolation string           Container isolation technology
      --label list                 Set metadata for an image
  -m, --memory bytes               Memory limit
      --memory-swap bytes          Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: '-1' to enable unlimited swap
      --network string             Set the networking mode for the RUN instructions during build (default "default")
      --no-cache                   Do not use cache when building the image
      --pull                       Always attempt to pull a newer version of the image
  -q, --quiet                      Suppress the build output and print image ID on success
      --rm                         Remove intermediate containers after a successful build (default true)
      --security-opt stringSlice   Security options
      --shm-size bytes             Size of /dev/shm
  -t, --tag list                   Name and optionally a tag in the 'name:tag' format
      --target string              Set the target build stage to build.
      --ulimit ulimit              Ulimit options (default [])

Example

$ docker build -t asterisk-15 .

Sending build context to Docker daemon   2.56kB
Step 1/7 : FROM debian:8
8: Pulling from library/debian
85b1f47fba49: Already exists 
Digest: sha256:287a20c5f73087ab406e6b364833e3fb7b3ae63ca0eb3486555dc27ed32c6e60
...

commit

새로운 컨테이너 이미지를 생성한다.

$ docker commit --help

Usage:	docker commit [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]

Create a new image from a container's changes

Options:
  -a, --author string    Author (e.g., "John Hannibal Smith <hannibal@a-team.com>")
  -c, --change list      Apply Dockerfile instruction to the created image
      --help             Print usage
  -m, --message string   Commit message
  -p, --pause            Pause container during commit (default true)

Example

$ docker commit asterisk01 pchero/asterisk-14.0.2
sha256:613a9a3c8ae0cea34dd55c0cb1a5c5de9390673dad6f6958ab9543fba906cffd

$ docker images
REPOSITORY               TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
pchero/asterisk-14.0.2   latest              613a9a3c8ae0        6 seconds ago       903MB
...

exec

외부에서 현재 running 중인 container 안의 명령을 실행한다.

$ sudo docker exec --help

Usage:	docker exec [OPTIONS] CONTAINER COMMAND [ARG...]

Run a command in a running container

Options:
  -d, --detach               Detached mode: run command in the background
      --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container
  -e, --env list             Set environment variables
      --help                 Print usage
  -i, --interactive          Keep STDIN open even if not attached
      --privileged           Give extended privileges to the command
  -t, --tty                  Allocate a pseudo-TTY
  -u, --user string          Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])

컨테이너 이름 대신 컨테이너 ID 를 사용해도 된다. 하지만 컨테이너가 running 상태인 경우에만 사용할 수 있으며, stop 상태에서는 사용할 수 없다.

이미 실행된 컨테이너에 apt-get, apt, yum 명령으로 패키지를 설치하거나 각종 데몬의 실행/재실행 할 때 유용하다.

Example

$ docker exec hello echo "Hello world!"
Hello world!

$ docker exec -it asterisk01 asterisk01 -rvvvvv
Asterisk 14.0.2, Copyright (C) 1999 - 2016, Digium, Inc. and others.
...

help

$ sudo docker help

Usage:	docker COMMAND

A self-sufficient runtime for containers

Options:
      --config string      Location of client config files (default "/home/pchero/.docker")
  -D, --debug              Enable debug mode
      --help               Print usage
  -H, --host list          Daemon socket(s) to connect to
  -l, --log-level string   Set the logging level ("debug"|"info"|"warn"|"error"|"fatal") (default "info")
      --tls                Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
      --tlscacert string   Trust certs signed only by this CA (default "/home/pchero/.docker/ca.pem")
      --tlscert string     Path to TLS certificate file (default "/home/pchero/.docker/cert.pem")
      --tlskey string      Path to TLS key file (default "/home/pchero/.docker/key.pem")
      --tlsverify          Use TLS and verify the remote
  -v, --version            Print version information and quit

Management Commands:
  config      Manage Docker configs
  container   Manage containers
  image       Manage images
  network     Manage networks
  node        Manage Swarm nodes
  plugin      Manage plugins
  secret      Manage Docker secrets
  service     Manage services
  stack       Manage Docker stacks
  swarm       Manage Swarm
  system      Manage Docker
  volume      Manage volumes

Commands:
  attach      Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
  build       Build an image from a Dockerfile
  commit      Create a new image from a container's changes
  cp          Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
  create      Create a new container
  diff        Inspect changes to files or directories on a container's filesystem
  events      Get real time events from the server
  exec        Run a command in a running container
  export      Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive
  history     Show the history of an image
  images      List images
  import      Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
  inspect     Return low-level information on Docker objects
  kill        Kill one or more running containers
  load        Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN
  login       Log in to a Docker registry
  logout      Log out from a Docker registry
  logs        Fetch the logs of a container
  pause       Pause all processes within one or more containers
  port        List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
  ps          List containers
  pull        Pull an image or a repository from a registry
  push        Push an image or a repository to a registry
  rename      Rename a container
  restart     Restart one or more containers
  rm          Remove one or more containers
  rmi         Remove one or more images
  run         Run a command in a new container
  save        Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
  search      Search the Docker Hub for images
  start       Start one or more stopped containers
  stats       Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
  stop        Stop one or more running containers
  tag         Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE
  top         Display the running processes of a container
  unpause     Unpause all processes within one or more containers
  update      Update configuration of one or more containers
  version     Show the Docker version information
  wait        Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

Run 'docker COMMAND --help' for more information on a command.

image

현재 docker 에 저장된 image 들을 관리한다.

$ sudo docker image help

Usage:	docker image COMMAND

Manage images

Options:
      --help   Print usage

Commands:
  build       Build an image from a Dockerfile
  history     Show the history of an image
  import      Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
  inspect     Display detailed information on one or more images
  load        Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN
  ls          List images
  prune       Remove unused images
  pull        Pull an image or a repository from a registry
  push        Push an image or a repository to a registry
  rm          Remove one or more images
  save        Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
  tag         Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE

Run 'docker image COMMAND --help' for more information on a command.

logs

지정한 컨테이너의 로그를 표시한다.

$ docker help logs

Usage:	docker logs [OPTIONS] CONTAINER

Fetch the logs of a container

Options:
      --details        Show extra details provided to logs
  -f, --follow         Follow log output
      --help           Print usage
      --since string   Show logs since timestamp (e.g. 2013-01-02T13:23:37) or relative (e.g. 42m for 42 minutes)
      --tail string    Number of lines to show from the end of the logs (default "all")
  -t, --timestamps     Show timestamps

ps

컨테이너 리스트를 보여준다.

$ sudo docker ps -h
Flag shorthand -h has been deprecated, please use --help

Usage:	docker ps [OPTIONS]

List containers

Options:
  -a, --all             Show all containers (default shows just running)
  -f, --filter filter   Filter output based on conditions provided
      --format string   Pretty-print containers using a Go template
      --help            Print usage
  -n, --last int        Show n last created containers (includes all states) (default -1)
  -l, --latest          Show the latest created container (includes all states)
      --no-trunc        Don't truncate output
  -q, --quiet           Only display numeric IDs
  -s, --size            Display total file sizes

push

지정한 image/repository 를 https://hub.docker.com/ 로 업로드 한다.

$ docker push --help

Usage:	docker push [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG]

Push an image or a repository to a registry

Options:
      --disable-content-trust   Skip image signing (default true)
      --help                    Print usage

Example

$ docker push pchero/asterisk-14.0.2:latest 
The push refers to a repository [docker.io/pchero/asterisk-14.0.2]
1de9415971f6: Pushed 
c9f9bbc27788: Mounted from respoke/asterisk 
42266a27feba: Mounted from respoke/asterisk 
df5871f53cf3: Mounted from respoke/asterisk 
ed149fd3ab95: Mounted from respoke/asterisk 
bbc5aea4a29f: Mounted from respoke/asterisk 
c01c63c6823d: Mounted from respoke/asterisk 
latest: digest: sha256:08898d7f00889c79f467c5a15f888f304a93586e531d233781ac046dd4479582 size: 1790

rm

하나 혹은 그 이상의 컨테이너를 삭제한다.

$ docker rm --help

Usage:	docker rm [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Remove one or more containers

Options:
  -f, --force     Force the removal of a running container (uses SIGKILL)
      --help      Print usage
  -l, --link      Remove the specified link
  -v, --volumes   Remove the volumes associated with the container

컨테이너 이름 대신 컨테이너 ID 를 사용해도 된다.

Example

$ docker rm hello

rmi

하나 혹은 그 이상의 이미지를 삭제한다.

$ docker rmi --help

Usage:	docker rmi [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]

Remove one or more images

Options:
  -f, --force      Force removal of the image
      --help       Print usage
      --no-prune   Do not delete untagged parents

이미지 이름 대신 이미지 ID 를 사용해도 된다.

별도의 태그 이름을 지정하지 않으면, 지정된 이름을 가진 모든 이미지가 삭제된다.

Example

$ docker rmi ubuntu:latest
Untagged: ubuntu:latest
Untagged: ubuntu@sha256:506e2d5852de1d7c90d538c5332bd3cc33b9cbd26f6ca653875899c505c82687
Deleted: sha256:747cb2d60bbecbda48aff14a8be5c8b913ca69318a6067e57c697f8a78dda06e
Deleted: sha256:ec1fd849ff0a8f0aa2fd1acc29ad5dabbc79b89f63b74a4f54e31a7b0a100aa1
Deleted: sha256:e3f6dffa20cf36460d23bfb22e17be6e5339891f8537f32db79887caf832048b
Deleted: sha256:c213ffdc9f7032702de5a8e9045fcce2353b7221ef6bf4509e02005cfc858f58
Deleted: sha256:3fddf55a451aa43707518f2d8788c12ee5eb1f1e3075433f5bcf4d445d5c275d
Deleted: sha256:0f5ff0cf6a1c53f94b15f03536c490040f233bc455f1232f54cc8eb344a3a368

run

지정된 docker container 를 동작시킨다.

$ docker run --help

Usage:	docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]

Run a command in a new container

Options:
      --add-host list                  Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)
  -a, --attach list                    Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR
      --blkio-weight uint16            Block IO (relative weight), between 10 and 1000, or 0 to disable (default 0)
      --blkio-weight-device list       Block IO weight (relative device weight) (default [])
      --cap-add list                   Add Linux capabilities
      --cap-drop list                  Drop Linux capabilities
      --cgroup-parent string           Optional parent cgroup for the container
      --cidfile string                 Write the container ID to the file
      --cpu-period int                 Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
      --cpu-quota int                  Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
      --cpu-rt-period int              Limit CPU real-time period in microseconds
      --cpu-rt-runtime int             Limit CPU real-time runtime in microseconds
  -c, --cpu-shares int                 CPU shares (relative weight)
      --cpus decimal                   Number of CPUs
      --cpuset-cpus string             CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
      --cpuset-mems string             MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
  -d, --detach                         Run container in background and print container ID
      --detach-keys string             Override the key sequence for detaching a container
      --device list                    Add a host device to the container
      --device-cgroup-rule list        Add a rule to the cgroup allowed devices list
      --device-read-bps list           Limit read rate (bytes per second) from a device (default [])
      --device-read-iops list          Limit read rate (IO per second) from a device (default [])
      --device-write-bps list          Limit write rate (bytes per second) to a device (default [])
      --device-write-iops list         Limit write rate (IO per second) to a device (default [])
      --disable-content-trust          Skip image verification (default true)
      --dns list                       Set custom DNS servers
      --dns-option list                Set DNS options
      --dns-search list                Set custom DNS search domains
      --entrypoint string              Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image
  -e, --env list                       Set environment variables
      --env-file list                  Read in a file of environment variables
      --expose list                    Expose a port or a range of ports
      --group-add list                 Add additional groups to join
      --health-cmd string              Command to run to check health
      --health-interval duration       Time between running the check (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
      --health-retries int             Consecutive failures needed to report unhealthy
      --health-start-period duration   Start period for the container to initialize before starting health-retries countdown
                                       (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
      --health-timeout duration        Maximum time to allow one check to run (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
      --help                           Print usage
  -h, --hostname string                Container host name
      --init                           Run an init inside the container that forwards signals and reaps processes
  -i, --interactive                    Keep STDIN open even if not attached
      --ip string                      IPv4 address (e.g., 172.30.100.104)
      --ip6 string                     IPv6 address (e.g., 2001:db8::33)
      --ipc string                     IPC mode to use
      --isolation string               Container isolation technology
      --kernel-memory bytes            Kernel memory limit
  -l, --label list                     Set meta data on a container
      --label-file list                Read in a line delimited file of labels
      --link list                      Add link to another container
      --link-local-ip list             Container IPv4/IPv6 link-local addresses
      --log-driver string              Logging driver for the container
      --log-opt list                   Log driver options
      --mac-address string             Container MAC address (e.g., 92:d0:c6:0a:29:33)
  -m, --memory bytes                   Memory limit
      --memory-reservation bytes       Memory soft limit
      --memory-swap bytes              Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: '-1' to enable unlimited swap
      --memory-swappiness int          Tune container memory swappiness (0 to 100) (default -1)
      --mount mount                    Attach a filesystem mount to the container
      --name string                    Assign a name to the container
      --network string                 Connect a container to a network (default "default")
      --network-alias list             Add network-scoped alias for the container
      --no-healthcheck                 Disable any container-specified HEALTHCHECK
      --oom-kill-disable               Disable OOM Killer
      --oom-score-adj int              Tune host's OOM preferences (-1000 to 1000)
      --pid string                     PID namespace to use
      --pids-limit int                 Tune container pids limit (set -1 for unlimited)
      --privileged                     Give extended privileges to this container
  -p, --publish list                   Publish a container's port(s) to the host
  -P, --publish-all                    Publish all exposed ports to random ports
      --read-only                      Mount the container's root filesystem as read only
      --restart string                 Restart policy to apply when a container exits (default "no")
      --rm                             Automatically remove the container when it exits
      --runtime string                 Runtime to use for this container
      --security-opt list              Security Options
      --shm-size bytes                 Size of /dev/shm
      --sig-proxy                      Proxy received signals to the process (default true)
      --stop-signal string             Signal to stop a container (default "SIGTERM")
      --stop-timeout int               Timeout (in seconds) to stop a container
      --storage-opt list               Storage driver options for the container
      --sysctl map                     Sysctl options (default map[])
      --tmpfs list                     Mount a tmpfs directory
  -t, --tty                            Allocate a pseudo-TTY
      --ulimit ulimit                  Ulimit options (default [])
  -u, --user string                    Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])
      --userns string                  User namespace to use
      --uts string                     UTS namespace to use
  -v, --volume list                    Bind mount a volume
      --volume-driver string           Optional volume driver for the container
      --volumes-from list              Mount volumes from the specified container(s)
  -w, --workdir string                 Working directory inside the container

Example

$ docker run --name hello-nginx -d -p 80:80 -v /root/data:/data hello:0.1
55dc8f3a5bb0bc14cd6e1c98e266e3f05b7450badbef33d8a97c2e31912b1e3f

$ docker run --restart=always --privileged --name asterisk_01 -d -p 5060:5060/udp -p 10000-10500:10000-10500/udp pchero/asterisk-14.0.2
0a0fd0dfebb72f1a9d2e0aac817292a8c0409704cf7eb51df4595b6b406f21a8

start

하나 혹은 그 이상의 정지중인 컨테이너를 다시 실행시킨다.

$ docker start --help

Usage:	docker start [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Start one or more stopped containers

Options:
  -a, --attach               Attach STDOUT/STDERR and forward signals
      --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container
      --help                 Print usage
  -i, --interactive          Attach container's STDIN

stop

실행중인 컨테이너를 정지한다.

$ sudo docker stop -h
Flag shorthand -h has been deprecated, please use --help

Usage:	docker stop [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Stop one or more running containers

Options:
      --help       Print usage
  -t, --time int   Seconds to wait for stop before killing it (default 10)

See also

References