Directory /etc/sysconfig

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/etc/sysconfig 디렉토리 내용 정리.


Red hat 계열에서 사용하는 init script 디렉토리이다. /etc/init.d/* 혹은 service 명령어로 실행하는 스크립트들은 기본적으로 여기 디렉토리에 위치한 프로그램 스크립트를 실행하고 프로그램을 시작한다. 즉, 프로그램마다 특별히 설정되어야 하는 기본 설정값들이 있다면 여기 스크립트에 설정하면 되는 것이다.

Debian/Ubuntu 계열에서는 /etc/default 디렉토리를 사용한다.

  • /etc/sysconfig/keyboard
$ cat /etc/sysconfig/keyboard 
  • /etc/default/keyboard
$ cat /etc/default/keyboard 
# Check /usr/share/doc/keyboard-configuration/README.Debian for
# documentation on what to do after having modified this file.

# The following variables describe your keyboard and can have the same
# values as the XkbModel, XkbLayout, XkbVariant and XkbOptions options
# in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.


# If you don't want to use the XKB layout on the console, you can
# specify an alternative keymap.  Make sure it will be accessible
# before /usr is mounted.
# KMAP=/etc/console-setup/defkeymap.kmap.gz


만약 freesiwtch 시작시, max open file descriptor counter 를 변경하고 싶다면 다음과 같이 하면 된다.

$ cat freeswitch
## Type:                string
## Default:             ""
## Config:              ""
## ServiceRestart:      freeswitch
# if not empty: parameters for freeswitch
ulimit -n 100000


/usr/share/doc/initscripts*/sysconfig.txt 에는 /etc/sysconfig 디렉토리에 대한 자세한 설명이 나와있다.

$ cat /usr/share/doc/initscripts-9.02.2/sysconfig.txt

Files in /etc/sysconfig

Generic options:


     List of control groups that the daemon will be run in. For example,
     CGROUP_DAEMON="cpu:daemons cpuacct:/" will run it in the daemons
     group for the CPU controller, and the '/' group for the CPU accounting


  used by authconfig to store information about the system's user
  information and authentication setup; changes made to this file
  have no effect until the next time authconfig is run

      Whether or not the hesiod naming service is in use.  If not set,
      authconfig examines the passwd setting in /etc/nsswitch.conf.
      Whether or not LDAP is used as a naming service.  If not set,
      authconfig examines the passwd setting in /etc/nsswitch.conf.
      Whether or not NIS is in use.  If not set, authconfig examines
      the passwd setting in /etc/nsswitch.conf.

      Whether or not Kerberos is in use.  If not set, authconfig examines
      the settings in /etc/pam.d/system-auth.
      Whether or not LDAP is being used for authentication.  If not set,
      authconfig examines the settings in /etc/pam.d/system-auth.  Note
      that this option is separate from USELDAP, and that neither implies
      the other.
      Whether or not MD5-based hashing should be used when setting passwords.
      If not set, authconfig examines the settings in /etc/pam.d/system-auth.
      This option affects authentication using both local files and LDAP.
      Whether or not shadow passwords are in use.  If not set, authconfig
      checks for the existence of /etc/shadow.
      Whether or not SMB authentication is in use.  If not set, authconfig
      examines the settings in /etc/pam.d/system-auth.


  does not normally exist; if it does, it can influence a choice
  whether or not to fsck after a crash

      If the user does not respond, choose whether or not to fsck
      If this is set, drop to single user mode before fsck.

  deprecated values from earlier releases:

    CLOCKMODE=GMT indicates that the clock is set to UTC
    CLOCKMODE=ARC on alpha only indicates the ARC console's
      42-year time offset is in effect

  currently correct values:

      Indicates that the hardware clock is set to UTC.
      Indicates that the hardware clock is set to Local Time.
    Not having UTC set defaults to the last used (if recorded
    in the adjtime file), or to localtime, if not adjtime file

    ARC=true on alpha only indicates the ARC console's
      42-year time offset is in effect; otherwise the normal
      Unix epoch is assumed.
    SRM=true on alpha only indicates the SRM 1900 epoch is in
      effect; otherwise the normal Unix epoch is assumed.
    ZONE="filename" indicates the zonefile under /usr/share/zoneinfo
      that /etc/localtime is a copy of, for example:

     This determines the default desktop for new users.
     This determines display manager started by /etc/X11/prefdm,
     independent of the desktop.


  BOOTUP=<some bootup mode>
     BOOTUP=graphical means use X Windows graphical boot up
     BOOTUP=color means colorized text mode boot display. 
     BOOTUP=verbose means old style display
     Anything else means simplified display, but without color or ANSI-formatting
  LOGLEVEL=<a number>
     Sets the initial console logging level for the kernel.
     The default is 7. 8 means everything (including debugging);
     1 means nothing except kernel panics. syslogd will override
     this once it starts.
  RES_COL=<a number>
     Column of the screen to start status labels at. Defaults to 60
  MOVE_TO_COL=<a command>
     A command to move the cursor to $RES_COL. Defaults to nasty
     ANSI sequences output by echo -e.
  SETCOLOR_SUCCESS=<a command>
     A command to set the color to a color indicating success.
     Defaults to nasty ANSI sequences output by echo -e setting
     the color to green.
  SETCOLOR_FAILURE=<a command>
     A command to set the color to a color indicating failure.
     Defaults to nasty ANSI sequences output by echo -e setting
     the color to red.
  SETCOLOR_WARNING=<a command>
     A command to set the color to a color indicating warning.
     Defaults to nasty ANSI sequences output by echo -e setting
     the color to yellow.
  SETCOLOR_NORMAL=<a command>
     A command to set the color to 'normal'. Defaults to nasty
     ANSI sequences output by echo -e.
     Set to 'yes' to enable the key check for interactive mode as well as
     asking if a filesystem check should be done. Default is 'no' and
     the kernel command line option "forcefsck" can be used to check the
     filesystems and "confirm" can be used to enable interactive startup
     Set to 'yes' to enable automatic swapon of all partitions with
     the proper swap magic. This allows setting up swap without editing

  obsoleted values from earlier releases:

       Setting this to 'no' used to disable the magic sysrq key and
       Stop-A (break on serial console) on SPARC. This setting has been
       moved into kernel.sysrq and kernel.stop-a settings respectively in
       /etc/sysctl.conf. Setting either of them there to 0 disables it,
       setting it to 1 enables it.
       Setting this to 'no' used to disable the Stop-A (break on
       serial console) key on SPARC.
       This setting has been moved into kernel.stop-a setting in
       /etc/sysctl.conf. Setting it there to 0 disables it,
       setting it to 1 enables it. The setting should be present
       on SPARC only.


  KEYTABLE=<keytable file>
     for example: KEYTABLE="/usr/lib/kbd/keytables/"
     If you dump a keymap (using 'dumpkeys') to
     it will be loaded on bootup before filesystems are mounted/checked.
     This could be useful if you need to emergency type the root password.
     This has to be a dumped keymap, as opposed to copying the shipped
     keymap files, as the shipped files include other maps from the
     /usr/lib/kbd/keytables directory.
    on SPARC only, sun means a sun keyboard is attached on /dev/kbd,
    pc means a PS/2 keyboard is on ps/2 port.

  XEMU3=yes|no (emulate three buttons with two buttons whenever
    necessary, most notably in X)
  DEVICE=<a device node> (the device of the mouse)

  In addition, /dev/mouse points to the mouse device.


  HOSTNAME=<fqdn by default, but whatever hostname you want>
  GATEWAY=<gateway IP>
  GATEWAYDEV=<gateway device to use, when multiple devices have GATEWAY=> (e.g. eth0)
  NISDOMAIN=<nis domain name>
  IPXAUTOPRIMARY=on|off (note, that MUST be on|off, not yes|no)
  IPXAUTOFRAME=on|off (again, not yes|no)
    Set this to not set a route for dynamic link-local addresses.

  All the IPX stuff is optional, and should default to off.

  NETWORKDELAY=<delay in seconds>
    Delay in seconds after all network interfaces are initialized.  Useful if
    network has spanning tree running and must wait for STP convergence.
    Default: 0 (no delay)

    Enable or disable global forwarding of incoming IPv6 packets 
    on all interfaces.
    Note: Actual packet forwarding cannot be controlled per-device, use netfilter6 for such issues
    Default: no
    Enable or disable IPv6 configuration for all interfaces
    Use with caution!
    Default: value not set in this file

    Sets the default for device-based autoconfiguration.
    Default: yes if IPV6FORWARDING=no, no if IPV6FORWARDING=yes
    Sets the default for device-based Host/Router behaviour.
    Default: yes if IPV6FORWARDING=yes, no if IPV6FORWARDING=no
    Controls automatic IPv6 tunneling.
    Default: no

  IPV6_DEFAULTGW=<IPv6 address[%interface]> (optional)
    Add a default route through specified gateway
    An interface can be specified: required for link-local addresses
        Add default route through 3ffe:ffff:1234:5678::1
        Add default route through 3ffe:ffff:1234:5678::1 and device eth0
        Add default route through fe80::1 and device eth0

  Note: if IPV6_DEFAULTGW is specified with %interface scope and it
        doesn't match IPV6_DEFAULTDEV, IPV6_DEFAULTDEV is ignored.
  Note: it's preferred to use %interface for all addresses, not
        just link-local if you have multiple IPv6-enabled interfaces.

  IPV6_DEFAULTDEV=<interface> (optional)
    Add a default route through specified interface without specifying next hop
    Type of interface will be tested whether this is allowed
      IPV6_DEFAULTDEV="eth0" INVALID example!
    Examples for 6to4
        Add default route through dedicated 6to4 tunnel device "tun6to4", if configured

  Note: "tun6to4" does not support an additional IPV6_DEFAULTGW.
        Other interfaces prefer IPV6_DEFAULTGW, if specified.

  IPV6_RADVD_PIDFILE=<pid-file> (optional)
    Location of PID file for controlling radvd, see IPV6_CONTROL_RADVD
    Default: "/var/run/radvd/"
  IPV6TO4_RADVD_PIDFILE=<pid-file> (obsolete)
    As above, still supported for a while for backward compatibility.
  IPV6_RADVD_TRIGGER_ACTION=startstop|reload|restart|SIGHUP (optional)
    How to trigger radvd in case of 6to4 or PPP action
     startstop: radvd starts if interface goes up and stops
       if interface goes down using initscript call of radvd with related parameter
     reload|restart: initscript of radvd is called with this parameter
     SIGHUP: signal HUP is sent to radvd, pidfile must be specified, if not the default
    Default: SIGHUP

  IPv6 options above can be overridden in interface-specific configuration.

  obsoleted values from earlier releases:

      This setting has been moved into net.ipv4.ip_forward setting
      in /etc/sysctl.conf. Setting it to 1 there enables IP forwarding,
      setting it to 0 disables it (which is the default for RFC compliance).
      Setting this to yes used to automatically defragment IPv4
      packets. This is a good idea for masquerading, and
      a bad idea otherwise. This setting was moved into
      net.ipv4.ip_always_defrag setting in /etc/sysctl.conf. It
      is no longer valid for 2.4 kernels.
      Enable or disable global IPv6 initialization
      To do this properly, add a rule in /etc/modprobe.conf that
      disables loading of the ipv6 module. Example:
         install ipv6 /bin/true

  Contains lines of the form:

    <device> IPv6-network IPv6-gateway
    <tunneldevice> IPv6-network

  <device> must be a device name to have the route brought up and
  down with the device

  For example:
  eth0   fec0:0:0:2::/64                         fec0:0:0:1:0:0:0:20
   adds a route for IPv6 network fec0:0:0:2::/64 through fec0:0:0:1:0:0:0:20
  eth0    2000::/3	                         3ffe:ffff:0:1::1
   so-called "default" routes for clients

  sit1    2000::/3
   adds routes through dedicated tunnel interface sit1

  tun6to4  3ffe:ffff:1234::/56			
   adds routes through hardwired 6to4 tunnel interface tun6to4
  tun6to4  3ffe:ffff:5678::/56			::
   adds routes through hardwired 6to4 tunnel interface tun6to4,
   specifying next hop   

    * default routes (such as the "2000::/3" shown above) should be set with
       IPV6_DEFAULTGW and IPV6_DEFAULTDEV, see more above.
    * tunnel device "sit0" is not supported here, routes will never be applied



  This is used for setting up raw device to block device mappings.
  It has the format:
  	<rawdev> <major> <minor>
        <rawdev> <blockdev>
  For example: 
     /dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sda1
     /dev/raw/raw2 8 5


  PCIC_OPTS=<socket driver (i82365 or tcic) timing parameters>
  CORE_OPTS=<pcmcia_core options>
  CARDMGR_OPTS=<cardmgr options>


  ADIR=/.automount  (normally never changed)
  MOUNTPTS='/net /etc/amd.conf'  (standard automount stuff)
  AMDOPTS=  (extra options for AMD)


    Tape device.  Use the non-rewinding one for these scripts.
    For SCSI tapes this is /dev/nst#, where # is the number of the
    tape drive you want to use.  If you only have one then use
    For IDE tapes you use /dev/ht#, where # is the number of the tape
    drive you want to use (usually ht0).
    For floppy tape drives use /dev/ftape.

    Person to mail to if the backup fails for any reason

    Time to sleep between tape operations.  Some drives need a bit
    more than others, but 5 seems to work for 8mm, 4mm, and DLT

    This worked fine for 8mm, then 4mm, and now DLT.  An optimal
    setting is probably however much data your drive writes at one

  SHORTDATE=$(date +%y:%m:%d:%H:%M)
    A short date string, used in backup log filenames.

  DAY=$(date +log-%y:%m:%d)
    This is used for the log file directory.

    Regular date string, used in log files.

    Root of the logging directory

    This is the file name the incremental backup will use to store
    the incremental list.  It will be $LIST-{some number}.

    For counting as you go to know which incremental list to use

    For rewinding when done...might not use.

    The file in which we keep our list of backup(s) we want to make.


  used by the saslauthd init script (part of the cyrus-sasl package) to
  control which arguments are passed to saslauthd at startup time; changes
  made to this file have no effect until saslauthd is restarted

    controls which data source saslauthd will consult when checking user
    passwords; run 'saslauthd -a' to get a full list of available
    authentication mechanisms
    controls in which directory saslauthd will be directed to create its
    listening socket; any change to this value will require a corresponding
    change in client configuration files

    yes implies -bd (i.e., listen on port 25 for new mail)
    given to sendmail as -q$QUEUE
    -q option is not given to sendmail if /etc/sysconfig/sendmail
    exists and QUEUE is empty or undefined.

  If ~/.i18n exists, it is used in addition to /etc/sysconfig/i18n and allows
  per-user customization of the locales.

  LANG= set locale for all categories, can be any two letter ISO
    language code
  LC_CTYPE= locale data configuration for classification and conversion
    of characters
  LC_COLLATE= locale data configuration for collation (sort order) of
  LC_MESSAGES= locale data configuration for translation of messages
  LC_NUMERIC= locale data configuration for non-monetary numeric data
  LC_MONETARY= locale data configuration for monetary data
  LC_TIME= locale data configuration for date and time
  LC_ALL= locale data configuration overriding all of the above
  LANGUAGE= can be a : separated list of ISO language codes
  LINGUAS= can be a ' ' separated list of ISO language codes

  The above variables are used in /etc/profile.d/

  SYSFONT= Console font. Fonts are found in /lib/kbd/consolefonts.

  UNIMAP= Unicode font map. Most fonts have these built-in. Font maps
  can be found in /lib/kbd/unimaps. These are applied via setfont's
  -u option.
  SYSFONTACM= Console map. These are applied via setfont's -m option,
  and are found in /lib/kbd/consoletrans.
  The above are used by the /sbin/setsysfont command (which is run
  by rc.sysinit at boot time.) For more information, see setfont(8).

Files in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/


  Symlinks to /sbin/ifup and /sbin/ifdown, respectively.
  These are the only two scripts "in" this directory that should
  be called directly; these two scripts call all the other
  scripts as needed.  These symlinks are here for legacy purposes --
  only /sbin/ifup and /sbin/ifdown should currently be used
  at the user level.

  These scripts take one argument normally: the name of the device
  (e.g. eth0).  They are called with a second argument of "boot"
  during the boot sequence so that devices that are not meant to
  be brought up on boot (ONBOOT=no, see below) can be ignored at
  that time.

  Also, interfaces may be brought up via the hotplug scripts;
  in this case, HOTPLUG=no needs to be set to no to avoid this.
  This is useful e.g. to prevent bonding device activation by merely
  loading the bonding kernel module.

  Not really a public file.  Contains different basic settings that
  are set from /etc/[rc.d]/init.d/network at different stages of
  network initialization.


  Not really a public file.  Contains functions which the scripts use
  for bringing interfaces up and down.  In particular, it contains
  most of the code for handling alternative interface configurations
  and interface change notification through netreport.


  Not really a public file.  Contains functions which the scripts use
  for bringing IPv6 on interfaces up and down, like addresses, routes,
  forwarding handling and static or automatic tunneling.

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-<interface-name> and

  The first defines an interface, and the second contains
  only the parts of the definition that are different in a
  "alias" (or alternative) interface.  For example, the
  network numbers might be different, but everything else
  might be the same, so only the network numbers would be
  in the alias file, but all the device information would
  be in the base ifcfg file.

  The items that can be defined in an ifcfg file depend on the
  interface type.  The really obvious ones I'm not going to
  bother to define; you can figure out what "IPADDR" is, I
  think...  :-)

  Base items:
    NAME=<friendly name for users to see>
      Most important for PPP.  Only used in front ends.
    DEVICE=<name of physical device (except dynamically-allocated PPP
      devices where it is the "logical name")>
      Metric for the default route using GATEWAY
    ONBOOT=yes|no (not valid for alias devices; use ONPARENT)
      Default MTU for this device
      Default window for routes from this device
      modify /etc/resolv.conf if peer uses msdns extension (PPP only) or
      DNS{1,2} are set, or if using dhclient. default to "yes".
    DNS{1,2}=<ip address>
      provide DNS addresses that are dropped into the resolv.conf
      file if PEERDNS is not set to "no".
      Set to "scope SCOPE-ID" to set a non-default scope.  Supported only on
      Ethernet with BOOTPROTO=none.
      use the specified source address for outgoing packets
      ethernet hardware address for this device
      Set the hardware address for this device to this.
      Use of this in conjunction with HWADDR= may cause
      unintended behavior.
      Set this to not set a route for dynamic link-local addresses
      over this device.
      Without this option, or if it is 'no'/'0', and BOOTPROTO=dhcp,
      dhclient is run for the interface in "one-shot" mode; if the 
      dhcp server does not respond for a configurable timeout, then
      dhclient exits and the interface is not brought up - 
      the '-1' option is given to dhclient.
      If PERSISTENT_DHCLIENT=yes, then dhclient will keep on trying
      to contact the dhcp server when it does not respond - no '-1'
      option is given to dhclient. Note: this disables the automatic
      checking for the presence of a link before starting dhclient.
      With this option set to 'yes' (1), when a dhcp configured
      interface is brought down with 'ifdown', the lease will be
      released. Otherwise, leases are not released.
      Sends the specified hostname to the DHCP server.
      If set to 'yes', it will cause dhclient-script to ignore any $GATEWAY
      setting that may be in the ifcfg file for this interface.
      Otherwise, the dhclient session which obtains an ip-address
      on the same subnet as $GATEWAY will set the default route
      to be via $GATEWAY, and no other dhclient session will set
      the default route.

  If BOOTPROTO is not "none", then the only other item that
  must be set is the DEVICE item; all the rest will be determined
  by the boot protocol.  No "dummy" entries need to be created.

  Base items being deprecated:
    NETWORK=<will be calculated automatically with ipcalc>
    BROADCAST=<will be calculated automatically with ipcalc>

  Alias specific items:
      Whether to bring up the device when the parent device is brought
      Default: yes

  IPv6-only items for real interfaces:
      Enable or disable IPv6 configuration for this interface
      Default: no
      Enable or disable global forwarding of incoming IPv6 packets
      Note: Obsolete in interface specification!
      Default: no
    IPV6ADDR=<IPv6 address>[/<prefix length>]
      Specify a primary static IPv6 address here
      Optional, if normal host and a router advertisement daemon is on local link
      Required, if node is a router and interface should route packets
      Note: if prefix length is omitted, 64 is assumed
    IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES="<IPv6 address>[/<prefix length>] ..." (optional)
      A list of secondary IPv6 addresses (e.g. useful for virtual hosting)
        IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES="3ffe:ffff:0:1::10 3ffe:ffff:0:2::11/128"
    IPV6_MTU=<MTU of link> (optional)
      Optional, dedicated MTU of this link
      Note: Must be greater or equal to 1280.
      Enables RFC 3041 IPv6 privacy support if set.
      Default: RFC 3041 support disabled

  Special configuration options for multi-homed hosts etc.
	IPV6_ROUTER=yes|no: Controls IPv6 autoconfiguration
	IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes|no: Controls IPv6 autoconfiguration

  Optional settings for a 6to4 tunnel
      Enable or disable 6to4 tunneling setup
      Default: no
    IPV6TO4_RELAY=<IPv4 address> (optional)
      IPv4 address of the remote 6to4 relay
      Note: if this is omitted, :: (the anycast relay address) is chosen
    IPV6TO4_IPV4ADDR=<IPv6 address>[/<prefix length>] (optional)
      Overwrite local IPv4 address which is accessible from the Internet
       (optional, in case of static IPv4-NAT behind a router or other special scenarios)
    IPV6TO4_MTU=<MTU for IPv6> (optional)
      Controls IPv6 MTU for the 6to4 tunnel
      Note: Must be greater or equal to 1280
      Default: MTU of master device - 20
    IPV6TO4_ROUTING="<device>-<suffix>/<prefix length> ..." (optional)
      A list of routing tokens to setup proper IPv6 interfaces on the LAN
         IPV6TO4_ROUTING="eth0-:0004::1/64 eth1-:0005::1/64"
         Will create one address per eth0 and eth1, taking given SLA

  Optional settings for a 6to4 tunnel or a ppp link
    IPV6_CONTROL_RADVD=yes|no (optional)
      Enable signaling radvd that the 6to4 prefix has been changed or a
       preconfigured dynamic device is up or down
      Default: no

  IPv6-only items for static tunnel interface:
    Interface name: sitX (X => 1)
      Enable or disable IPv6 configuration for this interface
      Default: no
    IPV6TUNNELIPV4=<IPv4 address>
      Specify IPv4 address of a foreign IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnel endpoint
    IPV6TUNNELIPV4LOCAL=<IPv4 address>
      Specify local IPv4 address of tunnel, useful on interfaces with multiple IPv4 addresses
    IPV6ADDR=<IPv6 address>[/<prefix length>] (optional)
     local IPv6 address of a numbered tunnel
    IPV6ADDR_SECONDARIES="<IPv6 address>[/<prefix length>] ..." (optional)
      A list of secondary IPv6 addresses (example see above)
    IPV6_MTU=<MTU of tunnel> (optional)
      Optional, dedicated MTU of this tunnel
      Note: Must be greater or equal to 1280

   IPv6-only option to enable DHCPv6 client:
      This will enable the DHCPv6 client, dhcp6c, to be run for the interface.
      See man dhcp6c(8) and dhcp6c.conf(5).
      This will pass given arguments to the DHCPv6 client.  For example,
      "-I" option will request network information (e.g., DNS addresses)
      only, not IPv6 addresses.

  Ethernet-only items:
    configuration matrix for IPX.  Only used if IPX is active.
    Managed from /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup-ipx
    ARP=yes|no (adds 'arp' flag to ifconfig, for use with the
      ethertap device)
    LINKDELAY=<time in seconds>
      Time that the system should pause after the specific interface is
      enabled.  This may be useful if one interface is connected to a
      switch which has spanning tree enabled and must wait for STP to
      converge before the interface should be considered usable.
    BRIDGE=<br* device>
      If set, the ethernet device is not assigned an address.  It is added to
      the specified bridge device instead.

   Deprecated, but supported:
      Any device-specific options supported by ethtool. For example,
      if you wanted to force 100Mb full duplex:
        ETHTOOL_OPTS="speed 100 duplex full autoneg off"
      Note that changing speed or duplex settings almost always
      requires disabling autonegotiation with 'autoneg off'.

      Long term, this should be done by sysadmin-written udev rules.

    No longer supported:
     PROMISC=yes|no (enable or disable promiscuous mode)
     ALLMULTI=yes|no (enable or disable all-multicast mode)
     To properly set these, use the packet socket interface.

  Ethernet 802.1q VLAN items:
       Initscripts use DEV_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD naming mode for VLAN
               Example: eth0.42 for vlan 42 on device eth0.
       Valid VLAN ID range is 0-4095. Most ethernet switches reserve
       VLAN ID 1 to be used as management VLAN; starting from VLAN
       ID 2 is recommended.
       When enabled the VLAN device will move the ethernet header
       around to make it look exactly like a real ethernet device.
       This may help programs such as ISC dhcpd which read the raw
       ethernet packet and make assumptions about the location of
       bytes. If you don't need it turn it off because there
       is a small performance penalty. Default is on.

  PPP/SLIP items:
    MODEMPORT=<device, say /dev/modem>
    LINESPEED=<speed, say 115200>
    DEFABORT=yes|no (tells netcfg whether or not to put default
      abort strings in when creating/editing the chat script and/or
      dip script for this interface)
      (meaningless with WVDIALSECT)
  PPP-specific items
    WVDIALSECT=<list of sections from wvdial.conf to use>
      If this variable is set, then the chat script (if it
      exists) is ignored, and wvdial is used to open the
      PPP connection.
    DEFROUTE=yes|no (set this interface as default route? yes is default)
    DEBUG=yes|no (defaults to yes)
      turns on/off pppd and chat (if used) debugging.
    ESCAPECHARS=yes|no (simplified interface here doesn't let people
      specify which characters to escape; almost everyone can use
      asyncmap 00000000 anyway, and they can set PPPOPTIONS to
      asyncmap foobar if they want to set options perfectly)
    HARDFLOWCTL=yes|no (yes implies "modem crtscts" options)
    PPPOPTIONS=<arbitrary option string; is placed last on the
      command line, so it can override other options like asyncmap
      that were specified differently>
    PAPNAME=<"name $PAPNAME" on pppd command line> (note that
      the "remotename" option is always specified as the logical
      ppp device name, like "ppp0" (which might perhaps be the
      physical device ppp1 if some other ppp device was brought
      up earlier...), which makes it easy to manage pap/chap
      files -- name/password pairs are associated with the
      logical ppp device name so that they can be managed
    REMIP=<remote ip address, normally unspecified>
    DISCONNECTTIMEOUT=<number of seconds, default currently 5>
      (time to wait before re-establishing the connection after
      a successfully-connected session terminates before attempting
      to establish a new connection.)
    RETRYTIMEOUT=<number of seconds, default currently 60>
      (time to wait before re-attempting to establish a connection
      after a previous attempt fails.)
    RETRYCONNECT=yes|no (defaults to yes)
      If this is yes, then we will re-run pppd if it exits with a 
      "connect script failed" status.  Otherwise, only one attempt
      is made to bring up the connection.  Note that some connect
      scripts (for example, wvdial) might do their own retries (such
      as BUSY or NO DIALTONE conditions).
      If this is set, this will cause ppp-watch to exit after
      the specified number of attempts.
      Switches on demand-dialing mode using pppd's "demand" option.
      The amount of time the link needs to be inactive before pppd will
      bring it down automatically.
      The amount of time to wait at boot before giving up on the

  IPPP-specific items (ISDN)
    AUTH=[+pap] [-chap]

  ippp0 items being deprecated:
    BOOT=[on|off] will be converted to ONBOOT=[yes|no] by netconf
    LOCAL_IP=     will be converted to IPADDR by netconf
    REMOTE_IP=    will be converted to GATEWAY by netconf

  Wireless-specific items:
    See iwconfig(8) for additional information.
      Defaults to "any".
      Ignored if MODE=Managed.
      Ignored if MODE=Managed.
    SENS=<sensitivity threshold>
    KEY{1,2,3,4}=<WEP key with the given index>
    DEFAULTKEY=<default key index>
    KEY=<default WEP key>
    RTS=[auto|fixed|off|<rts threshold>]
    FRAG=[off|<fragmentation threshold>]
    IWCONFIG=<other iwconfig(8) options>
    SPYIPS=<list of IP addresses to monitor for link quality>
    IWPRIV=<iwpriv(8) commands>

  IPSEC specific items
     SRC=source address. Not required.
     DST=destination address
     SRCNET=source net (for tunneling)
     DSTNET=destination network (for tunneling)

   Manual keying:

     AH_PROTO{,_IN,_OUT}=protocol to use for AH (defaults to hmac-sha1)
     ESP_PROTO{,_IN,_OUT}=protocol to use for ESP (defaults to 3des-cbc)
     AESP_PROTO{,_IN,_OUT}=protocol to use for ESP authentication (defaults to
     KEY_AH{,_IN,_OUT}=AH key
     KEY_ESP{,_IN,_OUT}=ESP encryption key
     KEY_AESP{,_IN,_OUT}=ESP authentication key (optional)
     SPI_{ESP,AH}_{IN,OUT}=SPIs to use

   _IN and _OUT specifiers are for using different keys or protocols for
   incoming and outgoing packets.  If neither _IN or _OUT variants are set for
   protocols or keys, the same will be used for both.  Hexadecimal keys need to
   be prefixed with "0x".

   Automatic keying:

     IKE_DHGROUP=<number> (defaults to 2)
         PSK=preshared keys (shared secret)
         X509=X.509 certificates
         GSSPI=GSSAPI authentication
     IKE_AUTH=protocol to use for Phase 1 of SA (defaults to sha1)
     IKE_ENC=protocol to use for Phase 1 of SA (defaults to 3des)
     IKE_PSK=preshared key for this connection
     IKE_CERTFILE=our certificate file name for X509 IKE
       IKE_PEER_CERTFILE=peer public cert filename for X509 IKE
       IKE_DNSSEC=retrieve peer public certs from DNS
     (otherwise uses certificate information sent over IKE)

     To manage the racoon configuration manually (e.g. when there is more than
     one IPSEC configuration with the same DST), set KEYING=automatic and leave
     all IKE_* parameters unspecified.

     To override the identifier to use with a preshared key:

       MYID_VALUE=fqdn or user_fqdn string for this connection

   Usage of AH or ESP may be disabled by setting {AH,ESP}_PROTO to "none".

  Bonding-specific items

      Specifies device as a slave
      Specifies master device to bind to
      A space-separated list of options to the bonding driver for this
      interface, such as:

      "mode=active-backup arp_interval=60 arp_ip_target=,"

  Tunnel-specific items:
    MY_INNER_IPADDR=local IP address of the tunnel interface
    PEER_OUTER_IPADDR=IP address of the remote tunnel endpoint
    MY_OUTER_IPADDR=IP address of the local tunnel endpoint
      If unspecified, an IP address is selected automatically for outgoing
      tunnel packets, and incoming tunnel packets are accepted on all local
      IP addresses.
    PEER_INNER_IPADDR=IP address of the remote end of the tunnel interface
      If this is specified, a route to PEER_INNER_IPADDR through the tunnel
      is added automatically.
    TTL=TTL value for tunnel packets
      Default is to use the TTL of the packet transported through the tunnel

  Bridge-specific items:
    STP=off|on (see 'brctl stp')
    DELAY=forward delay time in seconds (see 'brctl setfd')

  TUN/TAP-specific items:
    OWNER=<owner of the device>


  chat script for PPP or SLIP connection intended to establish
  the connection.  For SLIP devices, a DIP script is written
  from the chat script; for PPP devices, the chat script is used


  A write-only script created from the chat script by netcfg.
  Do not modify this.  In the future, this file may disappear
  by default and created on-the-fly from the chat script if
  it does not exist.


  Called when any network device EXCEPT a SLIP device comes
  up.  Calls /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup-routes to
  bring up static routes that depend on that device.  Calls
  /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup-aliases to bring up
  aliases for that device.  Sets the hostname if it is not
  already set and a hostname can be found for the IP for that
  device.  Sends SIGIO to any programs that have requested
  notification of network events.

  Could be extended to fix up nameservice configuration, call
  arbitrary scripts, etc, as needed.


  Set up static routes for a device.


  Bring up aliases for a device.


  Called by dhcpcd once dhcp configuration is complete; sets
  up /etc/resolv.conf from the version dhcpcd dropped in


  Contains lines that specify additional routes that should be added when the
  associated interface is brought up.

  The files are processed by the ifup-routes script and uses the /sbin/ipcalc
  utility for all network masks and numbers. Routes are specified using the

    NETMASKn=<network/prefix mask>
    GATEWAYn=<next-hop router/gateway IP address>

  The "n" can be any integer number, but is expected to be consecutive
  positive integers starting from 0. For example:


  adds a network route to the network via the gateway at Since you must already have a route to the network of the
  gateway, there is no need to specify a device.

  Note: The ifup-routes script also supports an older syntax designed to be
  used directly as an argument to "/sbin/ip route add". This syntax is
  deprecated, but if no "ADDRESSn" lines are found the following will still
  work: dev ppp0
  adds a network route to the network through ppp0.


  Contains lines that are arguments to "/sbin/ip -6 route add"
  For example:

  site-local route for network fec0:0:0:2::/64
   via gateway fec0:0:0:1:0:0:0:20 (e.g. on eth0): 

  fec0:0:0:2::/64 via fec0:0:0:1:0:0:0:20

  additional prefix configured to be on-link on eth0:

  3ffe:fffe:1:2::/64 dev eth0
  6to4 route for network 3ffe:ffff:1::/48, either:

  3ffe:ffff:1::/48 via ::

  Note the special case of 6to4 interface: 'via [relay]' is 
  automatically added if explicit 'via' wasn't specified.


  Contains lines that specify additional routing rules that should be added
  when the associated interface is brought up.

  Each non-comment line is used directly as an argument to "/sbin/ip rule add".

See also